FMC/TFM Technique for Defect Characterisation
Defect characterisation has always been a challenge for ultrasonic inspection techniques.
Phased array has greatly enhanced the interpretation compared to conventional UT. However, some defects are still easily misinterpreted such as cracks with slag or lack of penetration depending on the geometry of the root.
The weld inspection field is vast and regulated by many standards. Most of them have different criteria according to the defect nature. For example, the ASME standard would allow defects under a certain dimension but will automatically reject cracks and lack of fusion. A proper characterisation may save money and increase public safety at the same time.
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